In 1945, Dr. Weston Price described “a new vitamin-like activator” that played an influential role in the utilization of minerals, protection from tooth decay, growth and development, reproduction, protection against heart disease and the function of the brain. Using a chemical test, he determined that this compound—which he called Activator X—occurred in the butterfat, organs and fat of animals consuming rapidly growing green grass, and also in certain sea foods such as fish eggs. Dr. Price died before research by Russian scientists became known in the West. These scientists used the same chemical test to measure a compound similar to vitamin K. Vitamin K2 is produced by animal tissues, including the mammary glands, from vitamin K1, which occurs in rapidly growing green plants. A growing body of published research confirms Dr. Price’s discoveries, namely that vitamin K2 is important for the utilization of minerals, protects against tooth decay, supports growth and development, is involved in normal reproduction, protects against calcification of the arteries leading to heart disease, and is a major component of the brain. Vitamin K2 works synergistically with the two other “fat-soluble activators” that Price studied, vitamins A and D. Vitamins A and D signal to the cells to produce certain proteins and vitamin K then activates these proteins. Vitamin K2 plays a crucial role in the development of the facial bones, and its presence in the diets of nonindustrialized peoples explains the wide facial structure and freedom from dental deformities that Weston Price observed.
Although both K vitamins were discovered and characterized over the course of the 1930s, two fundamental misunderstandings about these vitamins persisted for over sixty years: the medical and nutritional communities considered blood clotting to be their only role in the body, and considered vitamins K1 and K2 to simply be different forms of the same vitamin. The first vitamin K-dependent protein relating to skeletal metabolism was not discovered until 1978. It was not until 1997, nearly twenty years later, that the recognition that vitamin K was “not just for clotting anymore” broke out of the confines of the fundamental vitamin K research community.
Since the amount of vitamin K1 in typical diets is ten times greater than that of vitamin K2, researchers have tended to dismiss the contribution of K2 to nutritional status as insignificant. Yet over the last few years, a growing body of research is demonstrating that these two substances are not simply different forms of the same vitamin, but are better seen as two different vitamins: whereas K1 is preferentially used by the liver to activate blood clotting proteins, K2 is preferentially used by the other tissues to place calcium where it belongs, in the bones and teeth, and keep it out of where it does not belong, in the soft tissues. Acknowledging this research, the United States Department of Agriculture, in conjunction with researchers from Tufts University, finally determined the vitamin K2 contents of foods in the U.S. diet for the first time in 2006.
Ironically, Price discovered the roles of vitamin K2 in calcium metabolism, the nervous system and the cardiovascular system more than sixty years before the vitamin K research community began elucidating these roles itself, while vitamin K researchers discovered the chemical structure of activator X several years before Price even proposed its existence. Had Price been aware that his chemical test had been used for decades outside of the English language scientific community to detect quinones, a class to which the K vitamins belong, the two independent discoveries of this one vitamin may have converged sooner.
Instead, English-speaking researchers continued for decades to labor under the illusion that the iodometric method detected only peroxides; by the time this illusion was corrected, better methods for detecting peroxides had already been developed, Activator X had been forgotten, and the opportunity to make the connection between these three discoveries was lost. The twenty-first century, however, is already making radical revisions to our understanding of the K vitamins, which now make it clearer than ever that Activator X and vitamin K2 are one and the same.
Vitamin K2 is so important because it has been shown to: Stimulate and enhance osteocalcin production. Osteocalcin is a protein that allows retention of calcium into your bones and bone marrow. Inhibit osteoclasts which try break down and remove bone tissue. So, the evidence is quite compelling when it comes to the vital role vitamin K2 potentially plays in supporting your healthy bones & develop perfect Fibonacci Golden Ratio Of An Aesthetically Pleasing Physique.
The Blueprint Of An Aesthetically Pleasing Physique
So what does an aesthetically sculpted physique look like?
- Broad shoulders
- Bulging biceps with equally developed triceps
- A flat, armour plated chest
- V taper from a small waist up to the broad shoulders
- Defined abdominal region
- Well developed legs featuring quad definition with matching hamstrings and bicep-like calves
- This physique would also have that hard, dry look which is achieved by a very low level of body fat and minimal water retention.
This is because the golden ratio has been applied – yes, there’s a mathematical symmetry underlying his physique. It comes down to measurements and proportions.
The Golden Ratio in Bodybuilding
Visually, the golden ratio is as follows:
The golden ratio is numerically expressed as follows:
1:1.618 (1 to 1.618)
The golden ratio is everywhere. At the atomic level, in the skeletal system of animals, tree branches, the veins of leaves and the human body, of course.
Now, the part you’ve been waiting for… how can you apply the golden ratio to figure out the ideal size and proportions for your body?
Determining The Numbers You Need To Resemble A God
Record the following measurements:
- Arm circumference (at the peak of your bicep)
- Circumference of your non dominant wrist
- Circumference of your shoulders
- Circumference of your waist
- Circumference of your upper thigh
- Circumference of your knee
- Circumference of your calves
Now, here’s the formula you’re going to apply your measurements to:
- Your Ideal Arm Size
- Your arms when flexed should be 150% bigger than your non dominant wrist circumference.
- This is the equivalent to your wrist measurement x 2.5
- Your Ideal Calves Size
- Your flexed calves should match the size of your flexed arms.
- Calves measurement = arm measurement
- Your Ideal Shoulder Size
- Your shoulder circumference should measure 1.618 times larger than your waist.
- This is the equivalent to your waist x 1.618.
- Your Ideal Chest Size
- Your chest circumference should be 550% larger than the circumference of your non-dominant wrist
- This is the equivalent to your wrist measurement x 6.5.
- Your Ideal Leg Size
- The circumference of your upper thigh should be 75% bigger than the circumference of your knee.
- This is the equivalent to your knee measurement x 1.75.
Intake of fermented soybean (natto) increases circulating vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) and gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin concentration in normal individuals.
MK-7 from Natto is ten more efficiently absorbed than K1 from spinach. While vitamin K1 is primarily absorbed by the liver, MK-7 is absorbed in extrahepatic tissues, such as the arterial wall, pancreas, and testes. Why Is Vitamin K2 Important to You? While other nutrients are important for maintaining and promoting your bone health (vitamin D3 for example), evidence continues to surface indicating the vital role vitamin K plays in bone metabolism and healthy bone growth. Vitamin K2 is so important because it has been shown to: Stimulate and enhance osteocalcin production. Osteocalcin is a protein that allows retention of calcium into your bones and bone marrow. Inhibit osteoclasts which try break down and remove bone tissue. So, the evidence is quite compelling when it comes to the vital role vitamin K2 potentially plays in supporting your healthy bones & develop perfect Fibonacci Golden Ratio Of An Aesthetically Pleasing Physique. Key Benefits Highly biologically active form of Vitamin K2 MK-7 derived from natural natto.Helps you maintain strong bones. Helps support a healthy vascular (arteries and veins) system. Helps protect your cells from free radicals. Supports healthy heart function. Provides calcium path “key” from your bloodstream into your bones. Supports healthy memory function. Helps regulate calcification of your tissues. Maintains blood sugar levels already in the normal range.
Maxtrix GLA Protein (MGP) and Osteocalcin
Vitamin K2 activates two key proteins in the body.
- Osteocalcin: once activated, it carries calcium and minerals into bones and teeth. It’s mostly responsible for the dental health and osteoporosis prevention - based benefits of vitamin
- Matrix-GLA: The non-bone and teeth benefits of Vitamin K2 are mainly tied to the action of the matrix-GLA protein. This protein is activated only in the presence of Vitamin K2.
The process is called carboxylation. Non-carboxylated matrix GLA protein, which is known to form as a result of Vitamin K deficiency, is associated with cardiovascular disease. It’s known to have actions in the kidney, and lungs too.
1. Vitamin K2 may prevent wrinkles and reverse aging
Collagen and elastin are two of the components of skin that give it firmness and elasticity. As skin ages, it loses both collagen and elastin, and its youthful appearance along with them.
Skin cells appear to release matrix-GLA protein to prevent calcification of elastin in the skin.
One study looked at a genetic disorder where premature aging occurs.
It found that elastin is calcified due to the lack of Vitamin K2 activated matrix-GLA protein. Vitamin K2 could help maintain youthful skin activating Matrix-GLA and in turn preventing calcification of elastin.
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: A condition where the mineralization of skin and premature wrinkles occur.
2. Vitamin K2 to prevent varicose veins
Vitamin K2 activates matrix-Gla protein to mop up calcium in vessels, cardiovascular benefits. Calcification of veins has been shown to be a contributor to varicose veins, so Vitamin K2 may also prevent varicose veins. Varicose veins are not always detrimental to our health but can be unsightly and uncomfortable.
3. Vitamin K2 for blood sugar regulation and type-II diabetes
The second Vitamin K-dependent protein, osteocalcin, may help the body to use insulin. Activated proteins may increase insulin sensitivity, the core problem in type-II diabetes. It should be noted that evidence in this area is conflicting, though; one meta-analysis on this topic showed no effect.
4. Vitamin K2 to increase exercise performance
Bones release osteocalcin during exercise, seemingly sending out messages to help muscles cope with increased energy demands. The Vitamin K2 protein allows skeletal muscle to use energy during exercise, increasing the efficiency of the work out and potential performance.
5. Vitamin K2 and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) – female fertility
Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by an overproduction of certain steroids such as testosterone and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS).
One randomized control trial showed that Vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation for 8 weeks among Vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS decreased DHEAS levels and testosterone levels.
Vitamin K2 and its role in hormone production could both prevent and help treat polycystic ovary syndrome.
6. Vitamin K2 for low testosterone and male fertility
Vitamin K2 MK-4 is used for steroid production in the male testis. Studies in rats have showed that a diet providing MK-4 75 mg/kg enhanced testosterone levels compared to the control.
7. Vitamin K2 for preventing kidney stones
People with chronic kidney disease and those receiving dialysis are at risk of Vitamin K deficiency.
One risk factor for kidney stones is excess Vitamin D, as demonstrated in lifeguards. But the real problem is that Vitamin D creates a need for Vitamin K2.
Patients with kidney stones secrete matrix-GLA protein in its inactive form. Vitamin K2 deficiency is a major cause of kidney stones. People with polymorphisms for matrix-GLA protein also have higher risk of kidney stones.
8. Vitamin K2 to prevent cancer
Prostate calcification appears to be a significant factor in the development of prostate cancer.
One study on Vitamin K2 indicated that it can reduce the risk of prostate cancer by 63 percent.
9. Vitamin K2 and the brain
The most obvious role of Vitamin K2 on the brain may be prevention of cardiac embolism or stroke. Matrix-GLA protein has a role in preventing stroke due to its cardiovascular benefits.
However, recently, Vitamin K2-dependent proteins have been shown to play a key role in the brain and central and peripheral nervous systems. They may even have an antioxidant role in the brain itself.
Specifically, Vitamin K2 – alongside K1 – seems to act with glutathione to prevent death of nerve cells and brain damage.
Its role could be key in the neuro-degenerative process. Overall, it seems to prevent oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain.
Early studies are also showing that lower intake of Vitamin K relates to Alzheimer’s disease.
Overall, it seems a good dietary intake of Vitamin K2 is vital for optimal brain function and preventing degenerative disease.
Japan NattoKinase Association
Vitamin K activates the factors both to encourage and to inhibit blood coagulation. ((Vitamin K activates both blood coagulation promoting factors and blood coagulation inhibiting factors.)) This is an essential nutrient for healthy blood coagulation and this will not make the blood coagulation easier even if taken a lot. Moreover the recent researches show that Vitamin K has very important functions such as activating osteocalcin, which is an ossific protein, and matrix Gla protein, which is a protein that prevents heart disease through inhibiting the calcium deposition on arteries; therefore it can be said that this is an absolutely necessary nutrient in order to have a healthy life. There are two main types of Vitamin K. – one type is Vitamin K1 which is contained in vegetables and seaweeds and the other is produced by bacteria. There is only one kind of Vitamin K1 whereas Vitamin K2 has various kinds with different lengths of side chains and they are called menaquinone. The type of Vitamin K2 contained in natto is menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and natto contains Vitamin K2 the most around the world. In addition it has been revealed that Vitamin K2 (MK-7) contained in natto is most nutritious amongst all the vitamins by the recent research.
The main functions of Vitamin K2
Ⅰ※. Encourages healthy blood coagulation by firstly taken in the liver.
Ⅱ※. After that, inhibits the calcium deposition on blood vessel, which is one of the causes of arteriosclerosis, by activating matrix Gla protein, moving through the blood.
Ⅲ※. Finally encourages bone formation by activating osteocalcin in bone marrow.
It is known that the level of Vitamin K in the blood of involutional osteoporosis patients is lower than healthy people.
It has been found out that the amount of natto consumption and femoral neck fracture are negatively-correlated and that the fracture rate is lower where natto is consumed more. However, no correlation is found between the amount of processed soybean food and the fracture rate.
TOPICS – Do you know the amount of calcium in your artery?
TIME (Sep., 2005)
It has been found out that only the calcification of aortic valve can be indicative for the disease progression of serious silent aortic aneurysm, and the following factors cannot be an indication: Age, gender, existence or non-existence of heart and blood vessel disease, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia.
From the Magazine | Health
The Newest Risk Factor
By ALICE PARK
Posted Sunday, Aug. 28, 2005
There is a tendency that more arterial diseases occur by taking calcium supplement (1g)
- The result of human administration test for five years -
Vitamin K2 (MK-7) lowers the heart disease risk
The research with approximately 5,000 people conducted in Holland for a decade has found out that the incidence rate and the death rate of heart disease decreased by half in the group given more Vitamin K (MK-7) (average 45μg/ day) compared to the group given less Vitamin K (average 18μg/ day).
The difference of MK-4 and MK-7 in absorption efficiency
It was confirmed that the amount of MK-7 in the blood increased when 420μg of Vitamin K2 was taken at once however MK-4 was not detected in the blood. MK-4 can get possibly broken before it gets absorbed by intestinal canal and reaches liver either because MK-4 absorption is low or because it is very frail.
Differences between Vitamins K1 and K2
A large epidemiological study from the Netherlands illustrates this point well. Researchers collected data on the vitamin K intakes of the subjects between 1990 and 1993. They measured the extent of heart disease in each subject, who had died from it, and how this related to K2 intake and arterial calcification. They found that calcification of the arteries was the best predictor of heart disease. Those in the highest third of K2 intakes were:
- 52 percent less likely to develop severe calcification of the arteries
- 41 percent less likely to develop heart disease
- 57 percent less likely to die from it
However, intake of vitamin K1 had no effect on participants’ heart health.
While K1 is preferentially used by the liver to activate blood clotting proteins, K2 is preferentially used by other tissues to deposit calcium in appropriate locations, such as in the bones and teeth, and prevent it from depositing in locations where it does not belong, like the soft tissues. In an acknowledgment of the different roles played by vitamins K1 and K2, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) determined the vitamin K2 contents of foods in the U.S. diet for the first time in 2006.
Do We Need K2 in Our Diet?
A common misconception is that human beings do not need K2 in their diet, since they have the capacity to convert vitamin K1 to K2. The amount of K1 in typical diets is generally greater than that of K2, and researchers and physicians have largely dismissed the contribution of K2 to nutritional status as insignificant.
However, although animals can convert vitamin K1 to K2, a significant amount of evidence suggests that humans require preformed K2 in the diet to obtain and maintain optimal health.
The strongest indication that humans require preformed K2 in the diet is that both epidemiological and intervention studies show its superiority over K1. According to the epidemiological study from the Netherlands referenced above, intake of K2 is inversely associated with heart disease in humans, while intake of K1 is not. A 2007 study showed that K2 is at least three times more effective than vitamin K1 at activating proteins related to skeletal metabolism. And remember that in the study on the K2 vitamin’s role in treating prostate cancer, which vitamin K1 had no effect.
Foods High in Vitamin K2
All of this evidence points to the possibility that K2 may be an essential nutrient in the human diet. So where does one find K2 in foods? The following is a list of the foods highest in the vitamin:
Food Sources of Vitamin K2 (MK-7)
Food 100g Micrograms
Hard cheeses 76.3
Soft cheeses (brie) 56.5
Curd Cheeses 24.8
Cheddar cheese 10.2
It was once erroneously believed that intestinal bacteria played a major role in supplying the body with this vitamin. However, the majority of evidence contradicts this view. Most of the K2 produced in the intestine is embedded within bacterial membranes and not available for absorption. Thus, intestinal production of K2 likely makes only a small contribution to vitamin K status.
Fermented Foods Are a Good Source of K2
Fermented foods, however, such as sauerkraut, cheese, and natto, contain substantial amounts of vitamin K2. Natto contains the highest concentration of K2 of any food measured; nearly all of it is present as MK-7, which research has shown to be a highly effective form. One study demonstrated that MK-7 increased the percentage of osteocalcin in humans three times more powerfully than did vitamin K1.
Nattokinase Enzyme Benefits
Chronic nasal and sinus inflammation, or chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults. It is characterized by persistent symptomatic inflammation of the nasal mucosa and sinuses.
A new study indicates that nattokinase, an enzyme from Nattō, a traditional fermented food from Japan, can produce powerful effects that improve this condition. CRS tends not to respond to conventional drugs, but may respond to nattokinase.
Nattokinase is produced by adding the bacterium Bacillus natto to boiled soybeans. The bacteria try to digest the soybeans by secreting the enzyme. The most popular and scientifically studied application for nattokinase has focused on its potent fibrinolytic (“clot-busting”) activity—meaning that it breaks down fibrinogen, a component of blood clots and atherosclerotic plaque. Elevated fibrinogen levels are another clear risk factor for cardiovascular disease (in fact, there is a stronger association between cardiovascular deaths and fibrinogen levels than that for cholesterol).
Researchers decided to study nattokinase in CRS because excessive fibrin deposition in the nasal mucosa is a factor in CRS and plays a pivotal role in forming the nasal polyps so common in this condition.
A quick look at nattokinase in cardiovascular health
Nattokinase was first identified by Dr. Hiroyuki Sumi in 1980 while he was studying the clot-busting power of a variety of conventional drugs at the University of Chicago. On a whim, he put some natto in the petri dish containing a blood clot (thrombus). Much to his surprise, the thrombus was completely dissolved with 18 hours, which turned out to be considerably far less time than the drugs he was working with. He later went on to isolate nattokinase and has since examined its significance extensively.
In further clinical studies nattokinase has been shown to:
- Dissolve excess fibrin in blood vessels, which improves circulation, causes clot dissolution and reduces risk of severe clotting
- Reduces LDL (bad) cholesterol and increases HDL (good) cholesterol
- Reduces blood viscosity, improves blood flow and lowers blood pressure
The ability to improve blood vessel health was quite obvious from the results of a double-blind study in patients with high blood pressure. In the study, 73 subjects with baseline untreated moderate high blood pressure were randomized to take either nattokinase or placebo. At the end of 8 weeks, subjects in the nattokinase-supplemented group showed a significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, compared to subjects in the placebo group.
Nattokinase benefits the respiratory tract
Nattokinase benefits are not limited to the cardiovascular system, as excessive fibrin formation is a feature in many other health conditions. That’s why researchers at Fukai University in Japan sought to investigate its potential in CRS, nasal polyp formation, and asthma.
The results of their study showed that nattokinase effectively shrinks the nasal polyp tissue through fibrin degradation. Researchers also found that the viscosity of the nasal discharge and sputum from patients with CRS and asthma, respectively, was significantly reduced by incubation with nattokinase solution. The authors concluded that nattokinase may be an effective therapeutic option in patients with CRS and asthma by causing the breakdown of fibrin.
One of most important features of the nasal passages, sinuses and healthy airways is the elasticity and fluidity of the respiratory tract secretions. If the mucus is too thick and viscous, it fosters inflammation, blocked airways, polyp formation and difficulty breathing. What the study above indicates is that nattokinase can improve these secretions and, as a result, reduce the inflammation of the airways, reduce polyp formation, and promote easier breathing. This effect is similar to other enzymes such as bromelain and serrapeptidase. This also indicates that nattokinase is a strong consideration for conditions beyond CRS, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis and sinusitis.
Nattokinase should be used with caution if you are taking Coumadin or anti-platelet drugs (including aspirin, but especially drugs like Plavix or Ticlid) as it may increase bleeding tendencies.
Takabayashi T, Imoto Y, Sakashita M, et al. Nattokinase, profibrinolytic enzyme, effectively shrinks the nasal polyp tissue and decreases viscosity of mucus. Allergol Int. 2017 Oct;66(4):594-602.